# Atomic orbitals 7*p* electron density

**Animated plot of the 7 p electron density function (ψ_{7p})^{2}.** The yellow zones are where the wave function has positive values and the white zones denote negative values. There are three 7

*p*orbitals. These have the same shape but are aligned differently in space. The three 7

*p*orbitals normally used are labelled 7

*p*

*, 7*

_{x}*p*

*, and 7*

_{y}*p*

*.*

_{z}The graph on the right is a plot of values along a single line drawn through the nucleus while the surface plot on the left shows values of (*ψ*_{7p})^{2} on a plane including the nucleus.

The "surface" of the three-dimensional orbital at the top of each animation represents a set of points for which the electron density of that orbital is the same - an *isosurface*. By choosing different values of electron density, denoted by the bar moving up and down on the line plot or by the moving plane on the surface plot, then the size of the three-dimensional plot changes. Examine the 7*p* wave function plots for further information.

All values of electron density are of necessity not negative since the square of any real number cannot be less than zero.

Each 7*p* orbital has a planar node normal to the axis of the orbital (so the 7*p*_{x} orbital has a *yz* nodal plane, for instance) and five spherical nodal surfaces. The higher *p*-orbitals (8*p*, 9*p*, ...) are more complex since they have spherical nodes as well while lower *p* orbitals (2*p*, 3*p*, 4*p*, 5*p*, and 6*p*) have fewer.

The Orbitron

^{TM}, a gallery of orbitals on the WWW: https://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/

Copyright 2002-2021 Prof. Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield]. All rights reserved.